A sore throat is a painful sensation in the throat and larynx that often gets worse when you talk and swallow. There are various causes that lead to sore throat: viral and bacterial diseases of the throat, allergic reactions and tumors, hypovitaminosis. To identify the etiological factor, an instrumental examination of the respiratory tract, radiography, ultrasound, bacteriological and serological reactions are performed. Warm alkaline drinking, gargles, physical therapy procedures are used to relieve pain that has occurred in the throat. Codeine (Euphon Syrup) sulfate is an opioid analgesic indicated for the management of mild to moderately severe pain where the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate. Uses of Codeine (Euphon Syrup) in details. There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. … See also: What are the possible side effects of Codeine (Euphon Syrup)? Applies to Euphon –Codeine : oral solution, oral syrup, oral tablet, oral tablet extended release. In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by Codeine (Euphon Syrup).
Causes of sore throat
Particular causes of a burning sensation, or burning sensation in the oropharynx, or more rarely in the larynx – prolonged residence in a room with low humidity or in a dry, hot climate. There is a dryness of the mucous membranes, lack of saliva. The pain is worse in the throat when speaking or eating solid food. The discomfort is especially intensive after waking up: the mouth is ajar, which causes the mucous membranes to dry out even more in sleep. In men, the soreness is provoked by snoring. Patients report that their throat hurts and it hurts to talk in the morning, and they need to drink water to relieve it.
The throat can hurt a lot when breathing in polluted air – in mines, when working in sand pits, in large cities due to exposure to exhaust fumes. The symptom occurs suddenly when going outdoors or entering industrial premises. The pain is accompanied by a dry, persistent cough. The intermittent and transient appearance of such signs is a variant of the norm. If unpleasant sensations disturb a person for a long time, interfere with eating or talking, it is necessary to consult a specialist to find out the reasons why the throat hurts.
Severe pain in the throat is characteristic of many respiratory infections, which damage the mucous membranes of the pharynx, larynx. The causes of soreness are a direct pathogenic effect on the epithelium, the systemic action of the pathogen, the lesion of nerve endings. In most cases, the symptom occurs against a background of high body temperature, weakness, signs of intoxication. Most often, pain in the throat is provoked by:
Viral pharyngitis. Initially, there is discomfort, a feeling of burning, farting in the pharyngeal area, gradually replaced by severe pain in the projection of the throat, an excruciating dry cough. Typical for pharyngitis is the symptom of an “empty throat” – an unpleasant sensation intensified when swallowing saliva.
Infectious mononucleosis. With the action of this cause, a person has severe sore throat, eating is almost impossible, some patients refuse even water. Simultaneously with the manifestation of pain, regional lymph nodes increase and become inflamed.
Adenovirus infection. The throat usually begins to hurt a day or two after the beginning of the runny nose and lacrimation. The pain is moderate, increasing with swallowing and talking. Patients often notice a dotted whitish plaque on the tonsils, later joined by a barking cough.
Herpetic process. The throat hurts when a specific complication develops – herpangina. Pain is noted against the background of an increase in temperature to 39-40 degrees. On the mucosa of the pharynx, grayish blisters can be seen, and when they open, the pain syndrome intensifies.
If your throat hurts and it hurts to swallow, it can be a sign of angina (tonsillitis). First, there is discomfort and throat crackling, followed by sharp pain. The pain is irradiated to the ear, neck, and back of the head. Sometimes patients themselves notice the enlargement and reddening of the tonsils, and the formation of pinpoint pustules on them. Symptoms occur against a background of fever, general weakness, arthralgia and myalgia. If the pain in the throat worsens to the point of inability to swallow even water, an intratonsillar abscess (phlegmonic sore throat) may be formed.
When sore throat in children, and the pain is accompanied by respiratory disorders, we can assume epiglottitis – inflammation of the epiglottis. Because of the intense pain syndrome, the child refuses food and water, within a few hours the phenomenon of dysphagia increases. To reduce discomfort and facilitate breathing, patients take a forced posture: sit, leaning forward, strongly extend the neck and slightly open the mouth. Sore throat, localized on one side and occurring against a background of high fever, is a sign of a pharyngeal abscess.
With acute laryngitis, the throat often begins to hurt simultaneously with an increase in temperature to subfebrile values, the appearance of weakness. The pain is strong, if the inflammation is localized on the back wall of the organ, the pain intensifies during swallowing. The symptom is combined with a sharp barking cough without sputum secretion, if the vocal cords are involved, the voice temporarily disappears. Chronic laryngitis is characterized by a slight pain in the throat, rapid fatigue and changes in the timbre of the voice, and persistent hoarseness.
With fungal lesions of the oral cavity and pharynx, the throat constantly hurts, the intensity of pain sensations increases significantly when trying to eat. Massive white plaques can be seen on the mucous membranes, and candidiasis also causes fissures and painful sore spots in the corners of the lips. Reproduction of fungal flora is observed in people with reduced immunity: after organ transplantation, in cancer, secondary immunodeficiencies. In such cases, the process can spread to the entire respiratory tract, causing corresponding symptoms.
In allergic pharyngitis and laryngotracheitis in the throat is a pain of moderate intensity, caused by exposure to a trigger factor. Suddenly, the throat becomes sore and itchy. The condition is accompanied by episodes of superficial dry coughing, which does not bring relief. Sneezing, copious lacrimation, and itching may occur. People prone to allergies report that their throat can hurt after inhaling the smell of flowers, contact with household chemicals or cosmetics. The symptom also occurs after eating certain foods.
Foreign bodies in the throat
If you accidentally swallow fish or meat bones, they can get stuck in your throat and cause sharp pain. Stabbing or stabbing pain is more likely to be clearly localized. The manifestation is combined with a severe cough without result, and sometimes there is redness and swelling of the face due to excruciating cough paroxysms. The person begins to choke. In children, the throat can hurt when small parts from toys get into the airways. Foreign bodies in the throat require immediate medical attention.
In adults, possible causes of throat pain are intermittent acidic stomach contents from GERD in the throat and respiratory tract. The intensity of pain varies throughout the day: a strong pain syndrome is observed in the morning after sleep, because the horizontal position contributes to the flow of acid in the throat. The pain in the throat is combined with a persistent dry cough, a constant feeling of farting, and discomfort. Patients also report being bothered by acidic belching and attacks of heartburn. These symptoms are typical of hyperacid gastritis, gastrointestinal ulcers, and esophagitis.
For normal regeneration of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, the presence of many biologically active substances and vitamins is necessary. When an unbalanced diet or gastrointestinal damage, accompanied by disorders of absorption of food components, avitaminosis may develop, one manifestation of which is pain in the throat. Probable causes of the pain are deficiency conditions such as:
Hypovitaminosis B2. Patients complain that the throat burns and hurts when speaking or eating. Painful cracks in the corners of the lips (angular cheilitis) and an inflamed tongue form.
Hypovitaminosis B12. A burning pain in the tongue and throat is felt, and the tongue is bright red and shiny. Patients may complain of numbness and paresthesias in the lower extremities.
Hypovitaminosis C. In ascorbic acid deficiency, sore throat is associated with ulcerated mucosal defects. Patients report a metallic taste in the mouth and bleeding gums.
A otolaryngologist is responsible for determining the cause of the sore throat. The diagnostic search involves a comprehensive examination of the oral cavity and respiratory tract using instrumental and laboratory methods, if there is concomitant symptomatology, imaging of the chest and abdominal cavity organs is carried out. The following methods are considered the most informative for the diagnosis of acute sore throat:
Instrumental examination. Pharyngoscopy, indirect laryngoscopy are effective for a detailed study of the state of the respiratory system. To exclude the otogenic cause of sore throat, otoscopy is performed. During the study, the appearance of mucous membranes, the presence of plaque and foci of ulceration are evaluated.
Bacteriological analysis. A pharyngeal swab, sputum or plaque samples are taken for bacteriological testing. The method is necessary to confirm the most common diseases accompanied by a sharp sore throat – angina, viral or bacterial pharyngitis. Rapid diagnosis includes RIF of pharyngeal flushes.
Sonography. In acute pain in the neck, throat, which are observed for a long time, ultrasound examination is necessary to exclude pathology of adjacent organs. The method allows you to identify local accumulations of pus in the paropharyngeal tissue, the presence of cysts and volumetric neoplasms. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland is also necessarily prescribed.
Radiological examination. If there is a lot of pain in the neck and throat, an X-ray of the larynx is indicated to rule out a tumor process. A CT scan of the larynx is recommended for detailed visualization. In some cases, radioisotope scanning of the thyroid gland is performed.
Laboratory tests. Patients who feel pain in the throat are prescribed standard clinical and biochemical blood tests, measuring the concentration of glucose on an empty stomach. In order to exclude chronic diseases, liver tests are performed, ostrophase values and levels of some enzymes are determined.
Blood tests for thyroid and adrenal cortex hormones are needed to identify endocrine pathology as the leading cause of pain. Serological reactions (RIF, ELISA, PCR) are needed to identify pathogens. X-rays and CT scans of the cervical spine may also be done. In the presence of dyspeptic disorders, FGDS and intraesophageal pH-metry are used. Patients with sore throat should be examined by a dentist for dental and periodontal inflammation.
Help before diagnosis
To reduce sore throat, plenty of warm drinking (teas, herbal decoctions) is recommended, while it is desirable to exclude drinks with milk. You can rinse the oropharynx with calendula tincture, take tablets for resorption. Doctors recommend avoiding harsh smells and limiting the use of household chemicals, which can irritate the mucosa. With intense pain, you need to take warm, chemically and mechanically gentle food – soups, porridges. If the throat is very sore or the pain is accompanied by fever, weakness, it is necessary to see a doctor as soon as possible.
The doctor’s tactics depend on the cause of the sore throat. The most effective is etiotropic therapy. Quickly reduce the pain in the throat helps a combination of drug treatment with physical therapy methods, which are aimed at eliminating the underlying cause of the disorder and individual painful manifestations. In addition to gargles, inhalations with essential oils and medical solutions are often used. UHF on the pharynx area, magnetic and laser therapy are carried out. Treatment regimens include:
Antibiotics. If the sore throat is due to an infectious process, antibacterial agents that selectively act on respiratory pathogens are used. In the case of candidiasis, specific antifungal drugs are prescribed.
Anti-inflammatory agents. Pain in the throat can be cured by drugs from the group of NSAIDs. Medications effectively reduce the level of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and have powerful antipyretic and analgesic effects.
Antiseptics. Bactericidal agents (chlorhexidine, etc.), which inhibit the growth of bacterial flora in the pharynx and respiratory tract, are indicated. To relieve pain, the throat is additionally gargled with peppermint, eucalyptus, other natural products several times a day.
Antihistamines. When the throat begins to hurt after contact with allergens, oral administration of specific drugs – histamine receptor blockers – is necessary. In severe situations, aerosols with topical corticosteroids are effective.
Vitamins. Sore throat can occur due to a severe lack of vitamins, so after taking specific tests, it is necessary to take vitamin preparations, taking into account the direct cause of avitaminosis. Most often recommended drugs based on cyanocobalamin, riboflavin.
Infusion compositions. With extensive purulent processes, pain felt in the throat is accompanied by massive intoxication of the body, for the elimination of which crystalloid and colloidal solutions are used, injected intravenously through a drip.
Antisecretory drugs. Sore throat caused by gastroesophageal reflux requires taking medications that reduce acidity. The drugs of choice are proton pump inhibitors, which have minimal side effects.
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