Hypoglycemia is a decrease in plasma glucose concentration below 2.8 mmol/L. Causes include non-compliance with insulin therapy for diabetes (skipping meals, physical activity, alcohol consumption), various endocrine and metabolic disorders, and cancer. The clinical symptom complex is represented by autonomic and neuropsychiatric disorders of varying severity. Diagnosis is made on the basis of detection of low plasma glucose on an empty stomach or after a meal. Rapidly digestible oral carbohydrates, glucose or glucagon administration are used to relieve hypoglycemia. In many cases of hypoglycemia this remedy helps: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/sargenor-5.
Hypoglycemia is not an independent disease, but a clinical and laboratory syndrome. In diabetes, this condition occurs in about 40-60% of patients. Among people with type 1 diabetes, the percentage of hypoglycemia is slightly higher, but due to the much higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the predominant number of episodes of hypoglycemia are in this form of diabetes. Moreover, in diabetes patients with prolonged hyperglycemia (decompensation), symptoms begin to occur already at glucose levels of 5-6 mmol / l. Being in the process of maturation, the nervous system of children (especially newborns) uses more glucose and therefore reacts more acutely to hypoglycemia.
Causes of hypoglycemia
The condition has many etiological factors. In a healthy person, the causes of a decrease in glucose below normal values may be pregnancy, intense physical activity, prolonged starvation. However, such cases are extremely rare. Most often, hypoglycemia develops in various diseases and pathological conditions:
Errors of insulin therapy in diabetes. Considered to be the most frequent cause of hypoglycemia. It mainly develops if the patient, who regularly performs himself insulin injections, skips meals, consumes alcohol, starts exercising. Sometimes the cause is a violation of the injection technique, or an accidental or intentional overdose of insulin.
Hyperinsulinism. Secreting an inadequately large amount of insulin into the blood by beta cells of the pancreas occurs in insulinoma, hyperplasia of islets of Langerhans (nesidioblastosis). Some malignant tumors (carcinoma, mesothelioma) are also causes of excess production of insulin and insulin-like growth factor. Hypoglycemia can occur in the presence of autoantibodies to insulin that bind to insulin receptors (Hirata disease).
Endocrine disorders. Deficiency of the so-called counterinsulin hormones, i.e. hormones with an antagonistic effect in relation to insulin (cortisol, thyroxine, somatotropin) is observed in hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, pituitary dwarfism.
Medication intake. In addition to insulin, other medications may be the cause of decreased glucose concentrations. Primarily these include medications used in type 2 diabetes (antidiabetics), which stimulate insulin production by the pancreas – sulfonylurea derivatives (glibenclamide), glinides (repaglinide).
Gastrointestinal surgery. Such surgical interventions on the digestive organs, such as resection of the stomach or the initial part of the small intestine, lead to dumping syndrome, caused by accelerated ingestion of undigested food. This results in insufficient breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates.
Hereditary diseases. These are severe metabolic diseases (glycogenosis, galactosemia, fructosemia) characterized by a genetically determined defect in enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (glycogen, fructose, galactose). As a result of enzyme deficiency, the conversion of glucose from other carbohydrates is disturbed or its release from glycogen is hindered, which causes a drop in the level of glycemia.
The development of hypoglycemia is predisposed to chronic diseases in which the clearance of blood glucose-lowering drugs, such as renal, hepatic insufficiency, is slowed. Hypoglycemic effect of sulfonylurea derivatives is increased when they are taken simultaneously with sulfonamides, salicylates, synthetic antimalarials. Also hypoglycemia is promoted by delayed gastric emptying (diabetic gastroparesis).